The Libertarian Case for Drug Prohibition

first_imgThe Public Discourse 28 January 2018Family First Comment: An excellent article….. “Recreational drug use interferes with clear thinking. The very activity is centered around the consumption of an intoxicating substance that impairs one’s cognition. The whole point is to impair one’s ability to think clearly, which in turn impairs one’s ability to act freely. Thus, recreational drugs should be legally restricted because their use is incompatible with the vision of a freedom-respecting liberal state.”Many libertarians argue that we should legalize recreational drugs in the name of freedom and personal autonomy. Drug prohibition, they argue, infringes on personal freedom by denying individuals the liberty to do what they want with their own bodies.This is mistaken. In fact, it is drug legalization that infringes on freedom. Drug prohibition, not legalization, is the real pro-liberty position.Let me explain.The Foundations of FreedomAll should agree that one of the essential responsibilities of government is to protect and promote personal freedom. To that end, governments have an interest in restricting activities that impair, destroy, or otherwise undermine personal freedom.Now, freedom cannot flourish unless certain background conditions are met. Consider an analogy with markets. If a government wants to protect and promote markets, then it must safeguard the conditions that make a market economy possible. These conditions include the protection of life, exchange, contracts, and private property. Without these prerequisites in place, it would be all but impossible for markets to flourish.The same is true of freedom. If the government has a responsibility to protect and promote freedom, then it must also protect and promote the conditions that make it possible. On this point, one essential ingredient of personal freedom is rationality. Choices can only be free if they are made by a person whose cognitive faculties are functioning in the right way. Reason confers on our actions a certain order and intelligibility that make them explicable and coherent. It is what makes our actions ours, such that we are responsible for them. Our ability to act freely is diminished or destroyed if we are unable to deliberate and think coherently, or if we are subject to overwhelming coercive forces.In other words, freedom isn’t just the bare ability to do something; it is the ability to act under the influence of properly functioning cognitive faculties. This point is pivotal in making sense of the legal concepts of consent, coercion, and competence. Young children are unable to enter into legally binding contracts because their cognitive capacities are not fully developed. Likewise, insanity defenses are based on the understanding that cognitively disabled or insane persons cannot be held criminally liable for their actions. There cannot be freedom without rationality.Accordingly, since the government has a responsibility to protect personal freedom, it must also protect and promote a culture that is conducive to clear thinking and discourages impaired thinking. The government, therefore, has a responsibility to restrict activities that impair, destroy, or otherwise undermine clear thinking.Drug Prohibition: Myths and RealitiesSo far I’ve been defending drug restrictions. But the term “restriction” is vague. What kind of restrictions should the government adopt?Answer: the government should prohibit those substances that have no legitimate use aside from recreation. In addition to making them difficult to obtain, prohibition serves to drive up the cost of drugs, which in turn reduces demand by making it more expensive. It’s simply a matter of supply and demand: the more expensive you make something, the less willing people are to buy it. The added threat of legal punishment also serves to drive down demand. Conversely, if something is cheap, legal, and widely available, then people are more inclined to buy it.Drug legalization would make drugs both cheaper and more available, which in turn increases use. A 2015 study in the Journal of Health Economics found that medical marijuana laws increase marijuana use in both adults and adolescents. In adults aged 21 and older, the frequency of binge drinking also increased. Similarly, a 2017 study published in JAMA Psychiatry found that “medical marijuana laws appear to have contributed to increased prevalence of illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders.” Increased availability is also associated with increased use of other drugs, including alcohol.Prohibition makes drugs more expensive and less available, which in turn reduces drug use. Alcohol prohibition, which many think ended in failure, actually reduced per capita alcohol consumption by about 30 to 50 percent. Cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcohol psychosis, and arrests for drunk and disorderly conduct also declined dramatically. While is true that alcohol prohibition did ultimately fail, it failed for political reasons. In terms of reducing alcohol use, prohibition was a success. And given that excessive alcohol consumption impairs clear thinking (in addition to the $250 billion annual cost that it imposes on the nation), it is worth asking whether we should bring back some form of stringent alcohol regulation for reasons considered earlier.Of course, not all drugs are used recreationally. Alcohol can be consumed as a mild social lubricant without the intention to get drunk. But this is not true of marijuana, as the whole point of non-medical marijuana use is to get high (and, as we will see, most cases of so-called “medical” use are indistinguishable from recreational use). Nobody smokes a joint wanting to avoid the high. So too with heroin, cocaine, and other drugs. These drugs would be the target of prohibition, since their paradigmatic use is abuse, unlike alcohol.It is true that there will still be some who will go through the effort to illegally obtain drugs even if prohibition is enacted. Perfect compliance, however, isn’t the standard of success when it comes to lawmaking. Laws against murder, assault, and theft don’t stop all of these crimes, but nobody is proposing that we legalize these things.What about Medical Marijuana?My focus has been on recreational drug use, but it is worth briefly discussing so-called “medical” applications of drugs (specifically marijuana), since these are wedge issues that many pro-legalization advocates exploit to sneak in full recreational legalization.There is research showing that cannabis or cannabinoids can help with pain management, nausea and vomiting, and multiple sclerosis spasticity. However, this same research has also found strong evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids can negatively affect respiratory health, lead to the development of schizophrenia or other psychoses, and increase one’s risk of being in a motor vehicle crash. So the putative benefits of marijuana must be weighed against the negative health effects of marijuana use.Additionally, there isn’t really an essential need for medical marijuana, given that there are plenty of other medicines that can address the ailments that marijuana may help with. Thus, while I am open in principle to allowing certain kinds of medical marijuana (provided that it go through the same rigorous process by which other medicines are approved), it would appear to be unnecessary. And, given the health risks of marijuana, it would be ill-advised and reckless to legalize marijuana under the guise of medicine.Indeed, medical marijuana is ripe for abuse. In states with medical marijuana programs, the overwhelming majority of medical marijuana users are young male adults who claim “pain” as the reason for which they need marijuana. Only a tiny percentage use marijuana for other reasons. Pain, of course, is a very vague reason that is easy to fake, so it provides an avenue for recreational users to obtain marijuana under the false banner of medicine. It seems then that medical marijuana programs provide a smokescreen for recreational use that amounts to de facto legalization. So there is a case to be made for extending drug prohibition to so-called medical marijuana.READ MORE: up with family issues in NZ. Receive our weekly emails direct to your Inbox.last_img read more

Concept hormone kit that allows men to breastfeed wins award

first_imgNewsHub 26 October 2018Family First Comment:  Coming soon. Can’t wait.   “Chest-feeding” – a man taking various hormone drugs throughout his partner’s pregnancy, which allows him to grow milk ducts in time for the baby’s birth. Mothers no longer needed. #shockingA hormone kit that allows men to “chest feed” could become available to consumers in as few as five years.The invention is in its concept stages and is yet to be tested, however, it has picked up a “Meaning-Centred Design Award”.The kit involves a man taking various hormone drugs throughout his partner’s pregnancy, which allows him to grow milk ducts in time for the baby’s birth.Product designer, Marie-Claire Springham told DailyMail side effects of the drugs will likely be that men grow breasts up to the size of a B-cup.Ms Springham, who studied product design at Central Saint Martins in London, said she can’t see why couples wouldn’t use the product.“It seems unusual but women have been using hormones to change their bodies since they developed the birth-control pill,” Ms Springham said.READ MORE: up with family issues in NZ. Receive our weekly emails direct to your Inbox.last_img read more

Ginebra turns back NLEX; Caguioa gets 10,000 points

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ The loss was the first in two games for NLEX since Yeng Guiao returned from national duty and the Road Warriors dropped to 4-5 overall.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award View comments Phivolcs: Slim probability of Taal Volcano caldera eruption Allen Durham still determined to help Meralco win 1st PBA title Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Gov’t to employ 6,000 displaced by Taalcenter_img Tim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown “We can now go into (the) Meralco (game) clear-minded and not focus on that anymore,” Ginebra coach Tim Cone said as his charges enter the homestretch of their schedule starting Sunday against the Bolts at Sta. Rosa Multipurpose Sports Complex in Laguna.“We’ll start making him work on his next 10,000,” Cone added, even saying that Caguioa “can play until he’s 50. He’s just that kind of a special player.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSGolden State Warriors sign Lee to multiyear contract, bring back ChrissGinebra peeled away from the Road Warriors at the start of the second half, dropping 40 points in the third period before blowing NLEX off the floor in the fourth, with the latter half of the payoff quarter turning into garbage time where Cone got the chance to put Caguioa back in for the final two points he needed to make history.And that was a bad stretch of basketball that got him calling for time and reminding his players of the task at hand, “and that is to win the game,” he said. PBA IMAGESPlaying an extraordinary third quarter, Barangay Ginebra on Friday night went on to bamboozle NLEX, 106-94, to clinch a playoff berth in the PBA Governors’ Cup on a night the Gin Kings celebrated with their biggest local star since the era of the man who gave birth to the never-say-die spirit.Mark Caguioa scored 16 points and joined the exclusive 10,000-point club, helping the team plug the holes made by several injured stars as the Gin Kings won for the fourth straight game to rise to 6-1 at Smart Araneta Coliseum and reclaim the solo lead.ADVERTISEMENT Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Japeth Aguilar embraces role, gets rewarded with Finals MVP plum Fiba 3×3 U23 World Cup: Philippines racks up 2 wins but fails to enter quarters LATEST STORIESlast_img read more